Philanthropic Achievement of the Week
1945 - Sloan-Kettering Institute
General Motors vice president Charles Kettering is most famously known for his automotive inventions, such as the first electrical starter motor and leaded gasoline, and the 185 patents he held. Less known are his contributions to medicine and science. An extraordinarily broad tinkerer, Kettering also developed several medical innovations, such as an incubator for premature infants, treatments for venereal disease, and magnetic diagnostic devices.
In addition, Kettering was a visionary philanthropist who devoted his wealth to funding projects that could be as productive as his contraptions. In 1945, he and Alfred Sloan, another General Motors vice president, established the Sloan-Kettering Institute, the first private biomedical research center of its sort in the world. The center was built next to Memorial Hospital, an institution with its own long and impressive philanthropic history. Founded in 1884 as a specialized cancer hospital by a group that included Mr. and Mrs. John J. Astor, the hospital was moved in 1936 to its current location, on land donated by John D. Rockefeller Jr.
From its founding, the Sloan-Kettering Institute aimed to harness the latest technology and research techniques to battle cancer. Matching the spirit of its founders, it held fast to the principle that advances in research always rest on “the creative genius of individual scientists.” In 1980, the institute and the hospital were combined into a single entity and today the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center is one of the nation’s leading biomedical research institutions and treatment facilities, treating more than 400 different subtypes of cancer with specialized regimens and advancing the state of the art via more than 120 research labs. In 2012, the first graduates matriculated from the center’s new Ph.D. program in cancer biology.
History of Sloan-Kettering Institute and Memorial Hospital, mskcc.org/about/history-overview
Charles Kettering biography, mayoclinicproceedings.org/article/S0025-6196(12)00271-6/fulltext
(VIDEO) Ryan: Civil society is one of the most important components of American life
House Budget Committee Chairman Paul Ryan (R-WI), who is widely expected to take over as Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, discussed several charity-related issues in this interview with CNBC last week. In this interview, Chairman Ryan expressed his belief in the critical role of our civil society, support for avoiding a cap of the charitable deduction, and extending the deadline to claim a charitable deduction until April 15.
The discussion was part of a broader conversation of the popular “Ice Bucket Challenge” for ALS. Chairman Ryan’s comments begin at 1:20.
Philanthropic Achievement of the Week
1954 Columbus Discovers Modern Architecture
What brought these architectural giants to little Columbus was private philanthropy. J. Irwin Miller, chairman of the Columbus-based Cummins Engine Company, was an architecture enthusiast. In 1942, he commissioned a new design for his home church from Eliel Saarinen. The church became an instant landmark, and Miller saw a role for philanthropy in beautifying his hometown and raising its worldwide profile. He became a major patron of civic architecture in 1954, when he struck an innovative deal with the city of Columbus: when a new public building was needed, Cummins would pay the commission for any first-rate architect selected from its own list, and the city would pay for construction costs.
Miller later expanded his program to cover private buildings with public purposes, such as churches, banks, and malls. And his own house, designed by Eero Saarinen, is a National Historic Landmark. “By the 1960s,” Radley Balko has written, “Columbus had become a world-renowned magnet for privately financed modernist design.” Miller’s vision continues today: architectural grantmaking in Columbus and its surrounding area remains a central interest of the charitable arm of Cummins Inc.
Radley Balko, “When Columbus Discovered Modern Architecture,” Reason magazine, reason.com/archives/2009/09/30/when-columbus-discovered-moder
Miller House and Garden, Indianapolis Museum of Art, imamuseum.org/millerhouse/columbus-indiana
ACR News 08.22.14—Ryan ‘No’ on Cap, Giving Increases in Puerto Rico
>> Federal: Washington Roundup
>> Federal: Rep. Ryan: No Cap for Charitable Deduction
>> Federal: Charitable Deduction Leads to a Sharp Increase of Donors in Puerto Rico
>> Federal: New Director for K-12 Programs
>> Top Reads: Proving Conventional Wisdom Wrong (Again) on Charitable Giving Tax Incentives
Congress is out of session for its August recess. Members are expected to return on September 8.
Rep. Ryan: No Cap for Charitable Deduction
House Budget Committee Chairman Paul Ryan (R-WI), who is widely expected to take over as Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, recently voiced his opposition to capping the charitable deduction, according to a report from Politico. Ryan stated that the charitable deduction is “the one area where I believe we should not have a top cap.”
As you may recall, Chairman Ryan was one of the Members of Congress with whom ACR leaders met on July 8 to discuss charity-related issues. He noted in the meeting the critical role of charitable services and the importance of private giving. At the time, ACR leaders made clear the importance of the charitable deduction.
Ryan’s recent comment came during an interview with Bloomberg TV in reference to his support for limiting the current mortgage interest deduction.
Charitable Deduction Leads to a Sharp Increase of Donors in Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico saw a 70 percent increase in the number of individuals who made charitable donations following the implementation of a 100 percent charitable deduction in 2011, according to a report released last week by the Flamboyan Foundation. The charitable deduction was one of several revisions in the Puerto Rican tax code in 2011.
“Nonprofit organizations and financial advisors of potential donors have an opportunity to spread the word about the 100 percent deduction for charitable donations and increase the number of taxpayers who make larger donations in Puerto Rico during the next few years,” Dr. Guiomar García Guerra, executive director of Flamboyan Foundation, said in a news release.
The number of Puerto Rican citizens who claimed charitable deductions on their Individual Tax Return Form increased from 27,644 individuals in 2010 to 47,004 in 2011, according to the report. That led to an increase of $5 million in charitable donations. Despite the large increase in the number of individual donors, the figure still represents only 4.6 percent of all taxpayers. This contrasts significantly with the 26 percent of those in the continental U.S. who claim a charitable deduction on their taxes.
Flamboyan Foundation is a private, family foundation focused on improving educational outcomes for children in public schools in Washington, D.C. and Puerto Rico, according to its website. The foundation plans to expand its research into private charitable giving by partnering with the Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy—which issues the annual Giving USA report—and the Kinesis Foundation on a future study of household giving patterns and priorities in Puerto Rico.
New Director for K-12 Programs
On August 1, Nicole Jarbo joined The Philanthropy Roundtable as the new director for K-12 education programs. Prior to joining the Roundtable, Jarbo taught first-grade at a KIPP school in New Orleans and 9th grade English at Carver Collegiate Academy, where she helped students achieve 2.5 years of reading growth in 10 months. She also launched a company, TeacherGym, to train teachers in effective classroom management practices.
Watch this five minute video for a brief introduction to Nicole and her vision for the K-12 education program.
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(ACR BLOG) Rep. Ryan: No Top Cap for Charitable Deduction
House Budget Committee Chairman Paul Ryan (R-WI), who is widely expected to take over as Chairman of the House Ways and Means Committee, recently expressed his support for not implementing a cap on the charitable deduction, according to a report from Politico. Ryan stated that the charitable deduction is “the one area where I believe we should not have a top cap.”
(ACR BLOG) Salt Lake Tribune Op-ed: Don’t let tax reform undermine charitable giving
Fraser Nelson, executive director of the Community Foundation of Utah, and Jeramy Lund, a Utah private investor, co-wrote an editorial in the Salt Lake Tribune on August 16 urging Utahns to contact their elected officials this month while members of Congress are home. Lund and Nelson explain the importance of constituents letting elected officials know how the decisions they make will affect the nonprofit sector.
Philanthropic Achievement of the Week
1999 Gates Millennium Scholars
Just before the turn of the millennium, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation put into operation a major college scholarship program for minority students, with an initial grant of a cool billion dollars that was later increased to $1.6 billion. Every year, the Millennium Scholars program selects 1,000 new African-American, Hispanic, Asian, or Native American college prospects and offers them good-through-graduation scholarships (set at various levels to cover their need). These can be used at any college the student chooses. The program particularly aims to encourage minorities to enter scientific fields like computer science, math, public health, and engineering (where they are underrepresented), and any Millenium Scholar in good standing who finishes an undergraduate degree and wants to continue on to grad school in one of these technical fields will also have their graduate education paid for by Gates.
In addition to financial aid, the program offers leadership development, mentoring, internships, and other resources to help students succeed—which collectively have yielded a rate of college graduation within six years of nearly 90 percent, more than double the average for all African Americans. Since its establishment, the Gates Millennium Scholars program has propelled more than 16,000 young Americans through their educational careers, and 28 percent have gone on to graduate school, half of them in the technical fields that Gates has particularly targeted.
Gates Millennium Scholars Program, gmsp.org/publicweb/aboutus.aspx
Surprising White House Executive Action Critics: The Brother’s Keeper Philanthropy Controversy
By Howard Husock
It’s not often that President Obama faces criticism from the liberal left regarding his Administration’s policy initiatives in matters involving race and disadvantage. Which is what makes so notable an opinion piece in the latest Chronicle of Philanthropy criticizing My Brother’s Keeper, the President’s program, announced this past February, “to address persistent opportunity gaps faced by boys and young men of color.” That focus was a cause of concern for NoVo Foundation executive director Pamela Shifman and former Schott Foundation program manager Nakisha Lewis, who wrote that Brother’s Keeper inappropriately overlooks the “dire straits” of many “minority women and girls”, including “epidemic levels of of domestic violence.”. The article goes further in criticizing Brother’s Keeper for “elevating a patriarchal conception of a “good” family—boys of color will grow up to be fathers and heads of households that are made up of nuclear families.”
There is little doubt that both minority males and females are not faring nearly as well as they should in the U.S.—and that both philanthropy and government have their roles to play in improving their educational and economic outcomes. But what makes the criticism proffered by Shifman and Lewis notable is their concern that My Brother’s Keeper is sending a signal from the White House to U.S. foundations and philanthropists—to focus one one group at the potential expense of the other. It’s a criticism that matters because of the nature of My Brother’s Keeper. It’s not a federal program so much as an effort by the White House to focus private giving and match it with non-federal government appropriations. As the White House has put it: ”Through this initiative, the Administration is joining with cities and towns, businesses, and foundations who are taking important steps to connect young people to mentoring, support networks, and the skills they need to find a good job or go to college and work their way into the middle class.”
Put another way, the President has put his thumb on the scale used by donors when they decide what missions they should support. Whether one agrees with the views of Shifman and Lewis about family structure or not, they are quite right to be concerned that the White House is throwing its weight behind a select approach. Historically, as I’ve argued in my book Philanthropy Under Fire, government and philanthropy have operated independently of each other—allowing philanthropy to identify problems government lacks the means or understanding to deal with.
The Obama White has consistently chosen a different approach—choosing, instead, to signal to philanthropy the sorts of causes which should merit support. This has been, for instance, the animating principle of the White House Social Innovation Fund, the Obama Administration initiative mounted through the Corporation for National and Community Service. It invites private donors to match White House-directed funds dedicated to addressing select social ills—ranging from HIV/AIDS to “community-driven initiatives to combat obesity and tobacco use”.
As with those addressed by My Brother’s Keeper, these are, without doubt, problems which merit attention. But by signaling what it views as the nation’s most important social problems—in effect through executive action—the Obama White House has risked undermining the traditional independence and creativity of private philanthropy (which, it must be noted, has not been all that reluctant to throw itself into the arms of government, or to see its ideas brought “to scale” as government programs, often ineffectively).
The objections to My Brother’s Keeper show us even those who may broadly agree with the concerns of the Obama White House can be put off by what can be seen as a nexus of big government and big philanthropy, which favors some causes over others.
It’s worth noting that there was a previous President who undertook a partnership with private philanthropy—one described by historian Oliver Zunz (in Philanthropy in America: A History) as “federally-directed philanthropy.” It was tried in the Administration of a President one suspects is not on President Obama’s short list of favorite predecessors: Herbert Hoover. And, notes historian Zunz, “it collapsed under the sheer scale of what was needed and under the pressure of conflicting visions of social justice.” The White House executive action to direct philanthropy appears to be leading to just those sort of conflicting visions once again.
This article originally appeared in Forbes and is published here with permission of the author.
ACR Blog: Private Charitable Giving: A New Italian Tradition
Private charitable giving has played a significant role in the United States in preserving our country’s historical culture and landmarks. For example, David M. Rubenstein is one of many well-known philanthropists who share a passion for preserving American history. According to a recent Washington Post article, Rubenstein, who agreed to cover $7.5 million of the cost of restoration for the Washington Monument after the 2011 earthquake, has also made a donation of $12.35 million to restore Gen. Robert E. Lee’s home at Arlington National Cemetery.
Philanthropic Achievement of the Week
1882 Great Libraries From Enoch Pratt—and Others
Enoch Pratt arrived in Baltimore from a Massachusetts farm with nothing but $150 in his pocket, but he was frugal and industrious and eventually thrived in a variety of businesses. In 1882 he offered to give the city of Baltimore a major circulating library for free public use, along with 32,000 books, plus four branch libraries in different quarters of the city, and an endowment of $1,058,333 for upkeep and future expansion. Once built, the Pratt almost immediately became one of the most heavily used libraries in the country, and it thrived over the century and a quarter since. Andrew Carnegie described it in The Gospel of Wealth as the best such institution in the country, and he cited Pratt as his exemplar for his own nationwide library program which he launched the year Pratt’s main library opened. In fact, two decades after the initial opening of the Pratt Library, Carnegie donated a half-million dollars to Baltimore to allow the building of 20 additional branches—part of his wider campaign that paid for the erection of more than 2,500 libraries (see the 1881 Carnegie Library entry in our companion list of major achievements in the arts and culture).
These were just two of the many American philanthropists who lifted American literacy and learning by donating important collections of books to the public. The grandfather of them all was Benjamin Franklin, who in league with a group of friends incorporated the Library Company of Philadelphia, the first such entity in British North America, in 1731 (see separate entry below). In 1814, Thomas Jefferson offered his large and impossible-to-replicate library to Congress for official use after the British burned Washington. Judah Touro gave the American West its first public collection of books when he offered to put up the Touro Free Library in the city of New Orleans in 1824, and at his death he helped endow the famous Redwood Library in Newport, Rhode Island. John Jacob Astor gave $400,000 to New York in 1848 to establish a library, later combined with the $2 million library given by James Lennox, as well as a trust containing most of the wealth of Samuel Tilden, to form the New York Public Library. With a $50,000 gift and 30,000 books “of permanent value,” financier Joshua Bates launched the Boston Public Library, whose main reading room remains named for him.
These gifts transformed libraries, over the course of just a couple generations, from luxuries possessed by the wealthy for self-improvement available to all. Today there are more than 16,000 public libraries in the U.S., and they are visited a billion and a half times every year.
Enoch Pratt Library history, prattlibrary.org/about/index.aspx?id=1604
Original Pratt documents, archive.org/stream/enochprattfreeli00enoc#page/14/mode/2up